British Capture Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

In late July 1777 the British decided to invade capture Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They wanted to capture this state because Pennsylvania was one of the most important colonies during the time of the Revolutionary War, and because it had agricultural and industrial resources and it was the cultural and political capital of the states capturing it would give them a great advantage over the states.The British devised a plan to sail south to Philadelphia. When Washington heard this, he to went south to prevent this from happening, but before they could Britain could attack the capital of the states they were stopped in the Delaware Bay because they had set up 56 rows of spikes in the bottom of the Bay so that it would tear the bottoms of their boats apart. This was a good plan because it stopped all sea born attempts at invading Philadelphia Impossible. A month or so passed by when the British were spotted next on August 22, 1777 on the Chesapeake Bay, Because of lack of food, no horses, and the weather was bad the British set up camp in Elkton, Maryland. While the British were gathering supplies from the local people, Washington was setting up a defensive strategy not to far away from where the were camped. Soon the British started North to Philadelphia.
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British move North to Philadelphia


On September 11, the Battle of Brandywine broke out. The British were held off by the colonials and the Pennsylvanian Division that helped fight. This battle was close until Washington found out that they were attacking his right side. An attempt to stop them from breaking through the right side Washington sent reinforcements, but he was to late they broke through and the colonists were forced to retreat. The Battle of The Clouds was just five days after and was very short. The Colonists sent their army to attack the british but when when meeting at the battle field it was way to muddy because of the rain that was pouring down and that forced them to retreat yet again. On November 16, the British captured two forts along the Delaware River which kept supplies from coming into the city now they were ready to fully settle in for a warm and cozy winter.

A reenactment of the Battle of Brandywine


A year after capturing Philadelphia, 15,000 British troops under General Sir Henry Clinton left Philadelphia. The British had captured Philadelphia on September 26, 1777, following General George Washington's defeats at the Battle of Brandywine and the Battle of the Clouds. British General William Howe had made it to Philadelphia, the center of the Continental Congress, but the Americans had moved its center government to the more safe site of York, Pennsylvania one week before the city was taken.
While Howe and the British officers spent the winter enjoying nice homes and warm fires and food while the Continental Army froze and suffered appalling hunger at Valley Forge. Thankfully they had French military men who could strategize against the British army and lead their attack against the British
When France entered into the war on the side of the Americans this made the British nervous because they knew that tey would be coming back to reclaim the former capital. To avoid the French fleet, General Clinton was forced to lead his British-Hessian force to New York City by land. Loyalists in the city sailed down the Delaware River to avoid the Patriots, the patriots then got back to Philadelphia the day after the British left. U.S. General Benedict Arnold, who led the army that recaptured the city without war, was appointed military governor. On June 24, the Continental Congress returned to the city from its second place in York, Pennsylvania.

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Battle of Brandywine


1. What was the colonists main defense on preventing the british from capturing Philadelphia through the Delaware

Bay?

2. Who was the British General that conducted the capturing of Philadelphia?

3. Where was the temporary place of the Continental Congress?